Author : Lilia Neri … [et al.].

Source : Journal of Food Science 84(4)2019:798-806

Abstract : The effect of dipping and vacuum impregnation (VI) pretreatments with lemon juice solution on the quality and stability of organic and conventional frozen apples was investigated. Fresh apples were characterized; organic apples showed, at equal starch and ripeness index, a lower sugar content, and higher acidity than conventional ones. The polyphenol content was slightly higher in organic apples than in conventional ones while polyphenoloxidase activity was similar. No differences in color and firmness were evidenced. Dipping affected organic and conventional apples’ color by determining an increase of lightness (ΔL* ≈ 4) and h° (Δh° ≈ 6) parameters. VI reduced the lightness of apples (ΔL* ≈ −3) but the addition of lemon juice counterbalanced the lightness reduction by increasing ΔL* from 3 to 1.5 ca. Pretreatments did not affect the firmness of organic fruits while impaired that of the conventional ones ( 26% on average), likely due to different fruit matrix porosity and cell wall composition. Freezing (−40 °C) and frozen storage (up to 300 days) dramatically reduced the firmness of organic (42%) and conventional products (58%). At equal pretreatment and storage time (that is, 15, 30, 300 days), higher firmness retention was evidenced in organic apples than in conventional ones. All through frozen storage, VI was shown to better preserve the mechanical properties of organic apples than that of conventional ones. Both freezing and frozen storage reduced the hue of frozen apple products by up to 8% due to browning reactions. Lemon juice addition increased the hue of both frozen samples and thawed samples by about 2% all through storage time.

Subject : Dipping. Freezing. Lemon juice. Organic apple. Quality. Vacuum impregnation.